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 CZECH REPUBLIC

9th century
- The Prague Castle is founded around 880 by prince Bořivoj of the Premyslid dynasty.
- Prague is established.
- Some members of the Premyslid dynasty embrace Christianity brought to the Czech lands by Cyril
- and Methodius, the "apostles of the Slavs".

10th century
- Foundations are laid to St. Vitus Rotunda and the Vyšehrad Castle.
- The Prague bishopric is founded in 973.

11th century
- Vratislav II becomes the first Czech king in 1085 but remains subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire
- and the German king.

12th century
- The first stone bridge over the Vltava, Judith Bridge, is built in 1172.

13th century
- The Old Town (
Staré město) is founded in 1231.
- The Lesser Town (
Malá Strana
) is founded in 1257.

14th century - Prague’s Golden Age
- John of Luxembourg rules the country (1310-1346).
- The Prague Castle Area (
Hradčany) is founded around 1320.
- The Old Town Hall is founded in 1338.
- Judith Bridge collapses in a flood in 1342.
- Charles IV rules the country (1346-1378) and will be remembered as the most beloved Czech king.
- Prague becomes one of the most prosperous cities in Europe and the cultural capital of Central
- Europe.
- The Prague bishopric is upgraded to an archbishopric.
- Construction of St. Vitus cathedral begins.
- The New Town (
Nové město
) is founded in 1348.
- Charles University is established in 1348 and becomes the first university in Central Europe.
- Charles IV elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1355; Prague becomes the capital of the Holy Roman
- Empire.
- Construction of Charles Bridge begins in 1357.

15th century
- The Hussite wars are sweeping the country from 1419 to 1437 as a result of the religious conflicts
- between the Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church. Many historical artifacts are destroyed and
- the Prague Castle deteriorates.

16th century and Prague’s Second Golden Age
- The reign of the Habsburg dynasty begins in 1526 and the seat of power moves to Vienna.
- Prague Castle is reconstructed in the Renaissance style and a number of recreational sites are added
- (the Royal Garden, the Belvedere, the Ballgame Hall, etc.)
- Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, is crowned the Czech king in 1575 and moves his court back to
- Prague in 1583. Prague becomes the center of science and alchemy and earns the nickname "Magic
- Prague". Many famous scientists are attracted to Prague, such as astronomers Tycho de Brahe and
- Johannes Kepler.

17th century
- The Protestant uprising begins in 1618.
- Protestants are severely defeated in the Battle of the White Mountain (
bitva na Bílé hoře) in 1620.
- The Dark Age of the Czech history (
doba temna
) begins.
- Prague loses importance and the Prague Castle deteriorates.

18th century
- The four independent urban areas of Prague (Old Town, Malá Strana, Hradčany, New Town) are
- united by Joseph II in 1784.
- A Czech nationalist movement called the National Revival (
národní obrození
) begins in 1784.
- The Czech language, culture and national identity are being brought back to life.
- Joseph II issues the Edict of Tolerance in 1781, granting political and religious rights to religious
- minorities.

19th century
- The Industrial Revolution begins.
- A railway between Vienna and Prague opens in 1845.
- The growing industry results in an increase of Prague’s Czech population as people move to the city
- from the countryside.
- Josefov is added to Prague’s historical center in 1850.
- The National Revival continues. Czech institutions are established to celebrate the Czech history
- and culture: the National Theater opens in 1868, the National Museum opens in 1890.

20th century
- The Austro-Hungarian empire falls in 1918 and Prague becomes the capital of independent
- Czechoslovakia.
- Prague Castle becomes the seat of the first president of Czechoslovakia, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk.
- Prague becomes close with Paris between WWI and WWII.
- Prague and the rest of the country are occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939-1945).
- The Prague Uprising and liberation by the Soviet Red Army end World War II in 1945.
- The Communist Party seizes power after the February 25, 1948 coup d’etat.
- Alexander Dubček, secretary of the Communist Party, attempts to create "socialism with a human
- face", culminating in the spring of 1968 ("Prague Spring").
- "Prague Spring" fails and five Warsaw Pact member countries invade Czechoslovakia on August 21,
- 1968.
- The Velvet Revolution starts in Prague on November 17, 1989 and brings an end to communism.
- Czechoslovakia becomes a democratic country.
- Václav Havel, former dissident, is elected president in the country’s first democratic elections
- in January 1990.
- Czechoslovakia splits into two independent countries, Czech Republic and Slovakia on January 1,
- 1993. Prague becomes the capital of the Czech Republic.
- Václav Havel is elected first president of the Czech Republic in January 1993.
- The Czech Republic joins NATO in 1999.
- In 2002, the Czech Republic is approved to become a member of the European Union.
- The Czech Republic is accepted into the European Union on May 1, 2004.

 


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